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PSYU 333 Final Exam

Question 1

The heritability estimates for major depressive disorder found in various studies have tended to range between

  • 30 and 40%
  • 1 and 2%
  • 2 and 4%
  • 6 and 8%

Question 2

Narcolepsy is most often considered to be a disorder of

  • Insomnia
  • Hypersomnia
  • Myoclonus
  • Sleep apnea

Question 3

Brains of human males and females exhibit the following general difference: Male brains tend to be

  • 15% smaller
  • 15% larger
  • Much more myelinated
  • Both A and C

Question 4

Evidence indicates that melatonin may function as a

  • Stimulant
  • Chronobiotic
  • Catecholamine
  • neurotransmitter

Question 5

Chronic fear that persists in the absence of any direct threat is known as

  • Psychological fear
  • Anxiety
  • Phobia
  • The Selye syndrome

Question 6

As habitual drug taking develops, control of drug taking is thought to shift from the

  • Nucleus accumbens in the ventral straitum to the dorsal striatum
  • Dorsal to the ventral striatum
  • Dorsal to the ventral septum
  • Septum to ventral tegmental area

Question 7

The true smile, which involves the orbicularis oculi, has been termed the

  • Orbicularis smile
  • Ekman smile
  • Duchenne smile
  • Legitimate smile

Question 8

“Stroke” commonly refers to

  • Closed-head injuries of sudden onset
  • Cancerous brain tumors of sudden onset
  • Cerebrovascular disorders of sudden onset
  • Cerebral attacks

Question 9

A vivid dreamlike state during wakefulness, often just as one awakens or falls asleep, is

  • Hypnagogic hallucination
  • Cataplexy
  • Sleep paralysis
  • Sleep apnea

Question 10

Down syndrome is

  • A toxic dementia
  • The result of a single abnormal dominant gene
  • Associated with a lack of acetylcholine
  • The result an extra chromosome 21 resulting from genetic accident

Question 11

Bard’s 1929 research on sham rage led him to conclude that the

  • Cannon-Bard theory is basically correct
  • James-Lange theory is basically correct
  • Hypothalamus plays a critical role in the expression of aggression
  • Entire limbic system plays a critical role in the expression of emotion

Question 12

Although adults have difficulty discriminating among many language sounds that are not present in the languages that they speak, ___________ can discriminate among the sounds of all languages.

  • 2-year-old infants
  • 10-month-old infants
  • 9-year-old children
  • 5-year-old children

Question 13

According to the Wernicke-Geschwind model, Broca’s area contains the neural programs of

  • Articulation (speech production)
  • Reading
  • Language comprehension
  • Language reception

Question 14

Antibodies are manufactured by a class of lymphocytes called

  • T cells
  • Antigens
  • B Cells
  • White blood cells

Question 15

In surface dyslexia, the __________ procedure has been lost.

  • Semantic
  • Phonetic
  • Lexical
  • Deep

Question 16

As a consequence of digestion, three different forms of energy are delivered to the body:

  • disaccharides, enzymes, and peptides.
  • lipids, amino acids, and glucose.
  • alcohol, amino acids, and carbohydrates.
  • pizza, fries, and beer.

Question 17

A spoon is presented in the left visual field of a split-brain patient, and an apple is simultaneously presented in the right. Then, the patient is instructed to reach into two bags (one with each hand) and feel around until he comes up with the object that was presented on the screen. However, before the objects are withdrawn, the patient is asked to tell the experimenter what he has in each hand. The patient is likely to say, “I have

  • an apple in each hand.”
  • a spoon in each hand.”
  • an apple in my left hand and a spoon in my right.”
  • no idea.”

Question 18

In the absence of Sry protein, the

  • cortex of a primordial gonad develops into an ovary.
  • medulla of a primordial gonad develops into a testis.
  • Müllerian system develops into male ducts.
  • cortex of a primordial gonad develops into a testis.

Question 19

A large group of patients who sought treatment for insomnia were found in one study to sleep __________ hours per night.

  • 2.5
  • 3.5
  • 5.5
  • 6.5

Question 20

Although the pituitary is often referred to as the master gland, strictly speaking the master gland is the

  • snot gland.
  • anterior pituitary.
  • posterior pituitary.
  • adrenal cortex.

Question 21

Fear is assumed to be the main motivating force for

  • defensive behaviors.
  • social aggression.
  • target sites.
  • aggressive behavior.

Question 22

Automatisms are often components of

  • complex partial seizures.
  • simple partial seizures.
  • generalized seizures.
  • tonic-clonic seizures.

Question 23

In the PNS, Schwann cells promote regeneration by

  • clearing the debris and scar tissue left by degeneration.
  • releasing neurotrophic factors.
  • releasing cell-adhesion molecules.
  • none of the above

Question 24

Most drugs used to treat Parkinson’s disease are

  • serotonin agonists.
  • dopamine agonists.
  • glutamate agonists.
  • none of the above

Question 25

Brief stressors usually

  • disrupt immune function.
  • increase illness.
  • improve immune function.
  • produce chronic stress.

Question 26

Although __________ agonists are effective in the treatment of obesity, they are currently not in wide use because they tend to have dangerous side effects.

  • glutamate
  • serotonin
  • GABA
  • acetylcholine

Question 27

Psychedelic drugs include ketamine and phencyclidine, which are classified as

  • psilocybins
  • dissociative hallucinogens.
  • dopamine agonists.
  • dopamine antagonists.

Question 28

The probability that a close biological relative (i.e., a parent, sibling, or child) of an individual with schizophrenia will also be diagnosed with schizophrenia is about

  • 1%.
  • 2%.
  • 10%.
  • 35%.

Question 29

Psychoactive drugs are those that affect

  • the activity of the central nervous system.
  • subjective experience.
  • behavior
  • all of the above

Question 30

In one study, volunteers gradually reduced the number of hours that they slept each night, until they felt that they had reached their limit. On the average, this limit was

  • 45 minutes.
  • 2 hours.
  • 5 hours.
  • 7 hours.

Question 31

Dreaming appears to occur most commonly during

  • REM sleep.
  • delta sleep.
  • initial stage 1 EEG.
  • periods during which muscle tension in core muscles is high.

Question 32

REMs are associated with

  • initial stage 1 EEG.
  • increased EMG activity in the core muscles.
  • emergent stage 1 EEG.
  • the first-night phenomenon.

Question 33

Mutant ob/ob mice

  • have high leptin levels.
  • tend to be obese.
  • are heterozygous for the mutant gene.
  • all of the above.

Question 34

It has been estimated that the corpus callosum contains 200 million

  • nuclei
  • axons
  • glia
  • synapses

Question 35

Most hormones fit into one of the following three categories:

  • complex carbohydrates, sugars, or proteins.
  • amino acid derivatives, peptides and proteins, or steroids.
  • peptide chains, saccharide chains, or amino acids.
  • exocrine, endocrine, or androgens.

Question 36

Although the __________ assumption is engrained in most people’s thinking, it is inconsistent with most of the evidence.

  • feedback
  • positive feedback
  • homeostasis
  • set-point

Question 37

Brain injuries produced by blows that do not penetrate the skull are called

  • closed-head injuries.
  • contrecoup injuries.
  • hematomas
  • lacerations

Question 38

Because even innocent people undergoing a lie-detector test are likely to be aroused by questions about their guilt or innocence, the

  • guilty-knowledge technique should be employed when possible.
  • mock-crime procedure is often employed.
  • control-question technique is often employed.
  • group-contingency threat procedure is often employed.

Question 39

During cocaine sprees, there is a risk of

  • convulsions
  • respiratory arrest.
  • stroke
  • all of the above

Question 40

T cells and B cells are

  • lymphocytes
  • antigens
  • antibodies
  • phagocytes

Question 41

The specific areas of the cortex that are involved in emotion seem to

  • vary substantially from emotion to emotion and person to person.
  • be clustered almost entirely in the prefrontal lobes.
  • be clustered almost entirely in the temporal lobes.
  • be clustered almost entirely in the right hemisphere.

Question 42

The animal model that best approximates human drug addiction is the

  • conditioned tolerance model.
  • contingent tolerance model.
  • drug self-administration paradigm.
  • drug withdrawal syndrome.

Question 43

Although __________ is classified as a depressant, it has stimulant effects at low doses.

  • alcohol
  • tobacco
  • amphetamine
  • morphine

Question 44

In humans, the following trait predicts individuals who will initially begin taking a drug:

  • novelty seeking.
  • low IQ.
  • high IQ.
  • paranoia

Question 45

The immune system has two components: the innate immune system and the __________ immune system.

  • phagocyte
  • adaptive
  • antibody
  • antibody-mediated

Question 46

In 1957, this drug became the first drug to be marketed as an antidepressant:

  • iproniazid
  • imipramine
  • reserpine
  • clozapine

Question 47

Marijuana contains over 80

  • kinds of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
  • cannabinoids
  • kinds of morphine.
  • hemp

Question 48

Stress that improves health has been termed

  • good stress.
  • eustress
  • adaptive stress.
  • bona fide stress.

Question 49

Delta waves, the largest EEG sleep waves, occur in

  • initial stage 1 EEG sleep.
  • stage 2 EEG sleep.
  • stage 3 EEG sleep.
  • emergent stage 1 EEG sleep.

Question 50

_______________ is a psychiatric disorder that is characterized by stress responses and extreme feelings of anxiety and worry about a large number of different activities or events.

  • Generalized anxiety disorder
  • A specific phobia
  • Panic disorder
  • Bipolar disorder type II

Question 51

The anticipated pleasurable effect of eating a particular food is that food’s

  • nutritive value.
  • reinforcement
  • reinforcement value.
  • positive-incentive value.

Question 52

Many hunger and satiety peptides have receptors in the

  • hypothalamus
  • amygdala
  • prefrontal cortex
  • striatum

Question 53

Set-point negative-feedback systems are one way of maintaining

  • high levels of food intake.
  • high levels of body fat.
  • homeostasis
  • high levels of hunger.

Question 54

The field that focuses on the effect of stress on immune function is called

  • biopsychology
  • psychophysiology
  • ethoexperimental immunology.
  • psychoneuroimmunology

Question 55


  • immediately eliminates the ability of all patients to achieve an erection.
  • reduces the recidivism rate of sex offenders.
  • immediately eliminates interest in sexual activity in all patients.
  • gradually reduces vaginal lubrication.

Question 56

Cultural practices that promote obesity include the practice of

  • eating three large meals per day whether one is hungry or not.
  • serving food at all social gatherings.
  • adding sweet, salty, and fatty tastes to foods to increase their positive-incentive value.
  • all of the above

Question 57

Epidemiology is the study of

  • infections
  • the spread of neurological disorders.
  • the various factors that influence the distribution of a disease in the general population.
  • the spread of epidermal disorders.

Question 58

At puberty, the growth of female pubic hair and axillary hair is stimulated by

  • androstenedione
  • testosterone
  • minestrone
  • growth hormone.

Question 59

A tropic hormone is any hormone that

  • stimulates or suppresses the release of posterior pituitary hormones.
  • is released by the pituitary.
  • stimulates or suppresses the release of other hormones.
  • influences the ovaries and testes.

Question 60

Phantom limbs are experienced by

  • patients during surgery.
  • patients during brain surgery.
  • amputees
  • opium addicts.

Question 61

A state of decreased sensitivity to a drug as a result of previous exposure to the drug is called

  • drug tolerance.
  • drug sensitization.
  • drug withdrawal.
  • psychological dependence.

Question 62

Which of the following is a positive symptom of schizophrenia?

  • inappropriate affect
  • delusions
  • incoherent speech or thought
  • all of the above

Question 63

People who suffer from anorexia nervosa

  • eat little.
  • have usually followed strict diets in the past.
  • often perceive their bodies as fat despite their emaciated appearance.
  • all of the above

Question 64

When insufficient neurotransmitter is released at a synapse, there is often a compensatory __________ of the receptors.

  • up-regulation
  • degeneration
  • regeneration
  • blockade

Question 65

Left-handers and right-handers are

  • dextrals and sinestrals, respectively.
  • more variable than androids.
  • equally lateralized with respect to language functions.
  • sinestrals and dextrals, respectively.

Question 66

Tics are the primary symptom of

  • Parkinson’s disease.
  • Tourette’s disorder.
  • multiple sclerosis.
  • Schizophrenia

Question 67

Collateral sprouting typically originates from

  • cell bodies.
  • dendrites
  • axon terminal branches or nodes of Ranvier.
  • nodes of Ranvier or cell bodies.

Question 68

People tend to feel hungry

  • at their regular mealtimes, whenever they are.
  • at noon.
  • in the evening.
  • in the morning.

Question 69

Slow-wave sleep seems to play a particularly important

  • recuperative role.
  • psychological role.
  • circadian role.
  • physiological role.

Question 70

Lithium is classified as a

  • mood stabilizer.
  • SSRI
  • both A and B
  • both A and C

Question 71

The most common cause of dementia is

  • Parkinson’s disease.
  • Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Huntington’s disease.
  • epilepsy

Question 72

Which of the following is a problem with the long-term use of benzodiazepines to treat insomnia?

  • tolerance
  • reduction of life expectancy
  • distortion of normal sleep
  • all of the above

Question 73

Common verbal tics of Tourette’s disorder include

  • echolalia
  • coprolalia
  • palilia
  • all of the above

Question 74

A pathological difficulty in reading is termed

  • phonemia
  • aphasia
  • dyslexia
  • apraxia

Question 75

Which of the following drugs is a now commonly prescribed analgesic?

  • morphine
  • caffeine
  • cocaine
  • heroin

Question 76

In functional brain-imaging studies of Tourette’s patients who are suppressing their tics, abnormal activity has been consistently observed in the caudate and

  • prefrontal cortex.
  • cerebellum
  • primary motor cortex.
  • dorsal horn.

Question 77

According to Woods, the cephalic phase is a period during which

  • physiological changes occur that tend to minimize the homeostasis-disturbing effects of the expected meal.
  • the effects of energy deficits are minimized.
  • the set-point is calibrated.
  • hunger starts to dissipate.

Question 78

Generalized seizures always involve

  • the entire brain.
  • tonus
  • clonus
  • auras

Question 79

In comparison to English speakers, Italian speakers are __________ to be diagnosed as dyslexic.

  • 50 % more likely
  • 10% more likely
  • less likely
  • twice as likely

Question 80

Individuals who experience drug withdrawal effects are, by definition,

  • addicted
  • physically dependent.
  • tolerant
  • psychologically dependent.

Question 81

Areas of the brain that analyze the meaning of a word are said to be performing a __________ analysis.

  • phonological
  • semantic
  • grammatical
  • lexical

Question 82

There are ____ phases of energy metabolism.

  • 14
  • 3
  • 5
  • 15

Question 83

Depression, anxiety, restlessness, irritability, constipation, difficulties in sleeping, and difficulties in concentrating are common __________ withdrawal symptoms.

  • heroin
  • alcohol
  • cocaine
  • nicotine

Question 84

About what percentage of people suffer from clinical depression (major depressive disorder) at some point in their lives?

  • 1%
  • 1%
  • 10%
  • 3%

Question 85

The belief that putting on a happy face makes one feel happier is an example of the

  • facial feedback hypothesis.
  • Ekman hypothesis.
  • prosody principle.
  • Pinel principle.

Question 86

Split-brain patients are those who

  • have been commissurotomized.
  • have split personalities.
  • are schizophrenic.
  • have two cerebral commissures.

Question 87

The anterior pituitary releases

  • tropic hormones.
  • testosterone
  • releasing factors.
  • vasopressin

Question 88

If one of your parents develops Huntington’s disease, the probability that you will also develop it is

  • 100%.
  • 50%.
  • 1%.
  • 0%.

Question 89

Bilateral lesions of the __________ selectively disrupt circadian cycles.

  • suprachiasmatic nuclei
  • lateral hypothalamus
  • lateral preoptic area
  • reticular activating system

Question 90

The Kluver-Bucy syndrome appears to result, to a large degree, from bilateral damage to the

  • hippocampus
  • hypothalamus
  • amygdala
  • septum

Question 91

Individuals with androgenic insensitivity syndrome do not develop normal internal female reproductive ducts because their

  • ovaries release Sry protein.
  • ovaries release Wolffian-inhibiting substance.
  • testes release Müllerian-inhibiting substance.
  • testes release androgens.

Question 92

Human patients who have had their stomachs surgically removed eat

  • so little that they need to be fed intravenously to survive.
  • much more than do humans with stomachs.
  • to continue to maintain their body weights by eating more meals of smaller size.
  • only through implanted fistulas.

Question 93

Destruction of the medial preoptic area

  • abolishes male copulatory behavior.
  • increases male copulatory behavior.
  • abolishes female copulatory behavior.
  • increases female copulatory behavior.

Question 94

Apraxia is usually associated with

  • asphyxia
  • right-hemisphere lesions.
  • left-hemisphere lesions
  • damage to Broca’s area.

Question 95

Aneurysms are often

  • congenital
  • caused by vascular poisons.
  • caused by infection.
  • all of the above

Question 96

During the conventional dichotic listening test, most participants correctly report

  • all digits heard through the right ear but none heard through the left.
  • all digits heard through the left ear but none heard through the right.
  • only those digits that are presented simultaneously to the two ears.
  • more of the digits presented to the right ear.

Question 97

Testosterone is

  • a progestin.
  • an androgen.
  • an estrogen.
  • a progesterone.

Question 98

Many people feel temporarily groggy when waking from a nap. This is called

  • nap aftereffect.
  • sleep inertia.
  • nap hypnagogia.
  • nap apnea.

Question 99

Both follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone are

  • releasing hormones.
  • releasing factors.
  • gonadotropins
  • posterior pituitary hormones.

Question 100

These drugs are widely used in the treatment of pain, cough, and diarrhea:

  • anxiolytics
  • stimulants
  • opioids
  • depressants

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